If you have been following my Youtube series for starting guitar theory - then you will now understand what the major scale looks like - and why it looks like it does.
You will also understand the intervals that form the "major" scale and this is shown below.
Chords and scales are described as major or minor. This is categorised by looking for the 3rd of the scale/chord. If its major then the chord / scale is major. If its minor - then likewise the chord/scale associated is minor.
These rules are CONSTANT.
So for example, a I chord is ALWAYS major, it will always have a major 7th and it will always have a natural 4th in the scale.
So you learn this once - and it is applied to any key you ever play in.
The diagrams below show you the Root, 3, 5 & 7 intervals from every starting point wthin the major scale in the "first position". These are the chord tones from that position.
I have done this so you can see the chords that are built from the major scale and the "intervals" of the surrounding notes,
By building each chord in the key from its root - and by looking at the intervals from that root you not only learn the chords in the key but the unique sounding scales that are formed when playing from root to root of the new "tonal centre".
This is called MODES & I have written the name of the mode in bold above each scale diagram which includes the chord tones and intervals of the scale/chord associated with the mode.
So - to practice this....
You will see every single mode is being demonstrated to you from the exact same position on the fretboard.
The notes dont change. The pattern doesnt change. The ONLY thing that is changing is the "tonal centre" IE where you start and end the scale and the chord that is built from that same tonal centre.
By playing the associated chord with the scale you will soon get to hear the sound and feel of each "mode". Its quite an exciting concept - to think all of these incredibly different sounding scales all come from just ONE major scale - but they do - and thats why they are fun to understand and play.
The diagrams above show the intervals and chord tones generated when you start from each point within the major scale. From this we can now say the chords in the key are as follows..
If you see a chord that has extensions beyond the 7th interval then you can rapidly work out what position in the key it is by looking for the interval in the scale tone diagrams above.
Let me give you an example. A minor 9th chord....
OK - so minor 9th? Look at the "modes" diagram and see which scales associated with a minor chord have a 9th in the scale (a 9th is an octave higher than a 2 but essentially the same hence its sometime refered to as 2/9).
You will see that both the IIm and VIm chords have a 9th so the minor 9 chord could be in either of these associated keys.